Auto Crashes


The cost and crashworthiness of vehicles as well as drivers’ safety habits affect the cost of auto insurance. According to preliminary data from the U.S. Department of Transportation, 34,080 people died in motor vehicle crashes in 2012, up 5.3 percent from 32,367 in 2011. 2012 marked the first year-to-year increase in motor vehicle crash fatalities since 2005. Out of concern for public safety and to help reduce the cost of crashes, insurers support safe driving initiatives. In 1969 the insurance industry created the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), an organization best known for its vehicle crashworthiness testing program. In the 1970s the industry began the campaign to get auto manufacturers to make air bags standard equipment in vehicles. It is a major supporter of antidrunk driving and seatbelt usage campaigns. Drivers themselves have also contributed to the reduction in crash-related fatalities by demanding safer vehicles. Eighty-six percent of respondents in a February 2010 IIHS survey said that safety is a very important consideration when buying a new car. Only 2 percent said it is not important.


  • 2012: According to a statistical projection from the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA,, traffic fatalities rose 5.3 percent in 2012 compared with 2011. If the projection is realized, 2012 will be the first year with a year-to-year increase in fatalities since 2005. Vehicle miles traveled in 2012 increased about 0.3 percent, and the fatality rate per 100 million miles traveled is estimated to have increased to 1.16 fatalities, compared with 1.10 fatalities in 2011.
  • 2011: In 2011, 32,367 people died in motor vehicle crashes, down 1.9 percent from 32,999 in 2010, according to latest actual data from NHTSA. In 2011, 2,217,000 people were injured in motor vehicle crashes, compared with 2,239,000 in 2010. The fatality rate per 100 million vehicle miles traveled fell to 1.10 in 2011, compared with 1.11 in 2010 to the lowest rate ever recorded.
  • Work-Related: In 2011 crashes involving vehicles on public roadways were the leading cause of work-related fatalities, accounting for 23 percent of all workplace fatalities, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  • By Age Group: According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), in 2011 people 65 and older made up 17 percent of all traffic fatalities. (See Older Drivers paper.) In 2010 (latest data available) there were 35 million older licensed drivers, up 21 percent from 2002. The total number of drivers rose 9 percent from 2002 to 2011.
  • In 2011 drivers between the ages of 15 and 20 accounted for 10 percent of all drivers in fatal crashes and for 13 percent of all drivers in police-reported crashes. In 2011 drivers in this age group accounted for 5.9 percent of all licensed drivers. (See Teen Driving paper).
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in 2010 that the cost of medical care and productivity losses associated with motor vehicle crash injuries was over $99 billion, or nearly $500, for each licensed driver in the United States. In addition, every 10 seconds an American is treated in an emergency department for crash-related injuries, based on data from 2005.

By Driver Behavior

  • Speeding: According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in 2011, 9,944 lives were lost due to speed-related accidents, down 5 percent from 10,508 in 2010. Speeding was a contributing factor in 30 percent of all fatal crashes in 2011. In 2011, 39 percent of 15- to 20-year-old and 37 percent of 21-to 24-year old male drivers who were involved in fatal crashes were speeding at the time of the crash. NHTSA says that speed-related crashes cost Americans $40.4 billion each year.
  • In August 2012 Texas approved an 85-mile per hour speed limit on 41 miles of new toll road between Austin and San Antonio. The road was specifically designed and tested for high-speed travel, according to the Texas Department of Transportation. According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Utah’s maximum speed limits are 80 miles per hour. Thirty-five states have a top speed limit of at least 70 miles per hour.
  • Drunk Driving: In 2011, 9,878 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes (any fatal crash involving a driver with a blood-alcohol content (BAC) of 0.08 percent or higher), down 2.5 percent from 10,136 in 2010. 2011 alcohol-impaired driving fatalities accounted for 31 percent of all motor vehicle traffic fatalities in the United States. (See Drunk Driving, Insurance Issues Updates.)
  • Drunk Driving and Speeding: In 2011, 42 percent of intoxicated drivers (with a BAC at or above 0.08 percent) involved in fatal crashes were speeding, compared with 16 percent of sober drivers.
  • Red Light Running: The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS, ) says that more than 900 people a year die and nearly 2,000 are injured as a result of vehicles running red lights. About half of those deaths are pedestrians and occupants of other vehicles who are hit by red light runners. (See Other Safety Issues, Red Light Cameras, below.)
  • Fatigue: A study released in November 2010 conducted by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety using NHTSA data for 1999-2008 found that 16.5 percent, or about one in six fatal crashes, involved a drowsy driver. These findings are much higher than a previous survey (1983-1993 data) by NHTSA that showed that about 3.6 percent of fatalities involved a drowsy driver In addition, a survey found that 41 percent of drivers said they had fallen asleep or “nodded off” while driving at least once in their lives and 11 percent said they had in the last year.
  • Distracted Driving: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines “distraction-affected crashes” as those that involve distractions such as dialing a cellphone or texting and distraction by an outside person or event. NHTSA said there were 3,331 people killed in distraction-affected crashes in 2011, up 1.9 percent from 3,267 in 2010. NHTSA believes the increase can be attributed in part to increased awareness and reporting. The number of people injured in distraction-affected crashes declined by 7 percent, from 416,000 people injured in 2010 to 387,000 in 2011.
  • Distracted driving is any activity that could divert a person’s attention away from the primary task of driving. Besides using a cellphone or smartphone for texting or talking, distracted driving includes mobile Internet use such as emailing or accessing social media such as Face book. However, NHTSA says that the biggest driver distractions are reaching for objects and talking to passengers. Other distractions include eating and drinking, grooming, reading (including maps), using a navigation system, watching a video or adjusting a radio, CD player, or MP3 player. An analysis of NHTSA data on the more than 65,000 people killed in motor vehicle crashes in 2010 and 2011, conducted by Erie Insurance, found that 62 percent of distracted drivers were daydreaming or lost in thought, while 12 percent were texting or talking on a cellphone.
  • Auto manufacturers have been equipping cars with increasingly complicated systems. In February 2012 NHTSA proposed voluntary guidelines urging automakers to block drivers from entering addresses into on-board navigation devices (GPS) or browsing the Web while driving. These rules would address in-car devices where the agency has clear authority and where rules could be adopted quicker than for mobile phones.
  • The U.S. Transportation Secretary released a plan to address distracted driving in June 2012 that encourages the 11 states that do not currently outlaw texting while driving (see Cellphone Use below) to enact anti-texting laws. The Secretary announced a $2.4 million grant to two states with such laws, California and Delaware, for a pilot enforcement program to reduce distracted driving and urged automakers to adopt guidelines to reduce distraction from on-board devices.
  • Cellphone Use: In April 2013 the National Center for Statistics and Analysis of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration released the results of the latest National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), which found that in 2011, 1.3 percent of drivers were text-messaging or visibly manipulating hand-held devices, up from 0.9 percent in 2010. 2011 marked the second year of significant increases. Driver use of hand-held cellphones was 5 percent in 2011 for the third year running. Hand-held cellphone use was highest among 16- to 24-year olds (7 percent in 2010 and 2011) and lowest among drivers 70 and older (2 percent in both 2011, up from 1 percent every year back to 2002). (See also Distracted Driving paper.)
  • NHTSA says that in 2012, one in two drivers said they answered cellphones and one in four drivers would make a call during some trips. The NHTSA study was released in April 2013.
  • A State Farm study released in late 2012 found that among drivers age 18 to 29, almost half (48 percent) accessed the Internet on a cellphone while driving. One-third of those drivers (36 percent) read social media networks while driving. Almost half of those drivers (43 percent) checked their email while driving. Other age groups engaged in these activities less frequently.
  • Many studies have shown that using hand-held cellphones while driving can constitute a hazardous distraction. In addition, the theory that hands-free sets are safer has been challenged by the findings of several studies. A study from researchers at the University of Utah, published in the summer 2006 issue of Human Factors concludes that talking on a cellphone while driving is as dangerous as driving drunk, even if the phone is a hands-free model. An earlier study by researchers at the university found that motorists who talked on hands-free cellphones were 18 percent slower in braking and took 17 percent longer to regain the speed they lost when they braked.
  • The latest study, conducted by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety and released in June 2013, used cameras to track drivers’ eye and head movements along with devices to record driver reaction time and brain activity. Using established research techniques from aviation psychology the researchers assigned a mental distraction rating of 1 to 3 for tasks that drivers performed while driving. Listening to a radio or audio book ranked as a category 1 distraction with minimal risk; talking on a cellphone, both hand-held or hands-free, was a category 2, with moderate risk. Listening and responding to voice activated email increased the drivers’ mental workload and raised distraction levels to category 3, or extensive risk. In April a study by the Texas A&M Transportation Institute compared the actual driving performance of 43 drivers without using cellphones, manually texting and using voice-activated texting. Researchers found that driver response times were significantly delayed when texting with both methods, taking drivers about twice as long to react as when not texting.
  • A study of California’s law prohibiting drivers from using handheld cellphones showed that overall traffic fatalities fell 22 percent in the two years after the law was enacted in July 2008, compared with the two years before its enactment. Deaths specifically attributed to cellphone use fell 47 percent. The findings of the study, conducted by the University of California at Berkeley, echo an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety study from 2010 that found that 44 percent of drivers in states with cellphone bans reported they do not use their phones while driving, compared with 30 percent in states that did not enact the laws. The University of California analysts said their study is the first to use collisions specifically involving cellphone use.
  • A survey conducted by Consumer Reports in December 2012 found that laws prohibiting the use of hand-held cellphones or texting while driving help reduce driver distraction. A total of 71 percent of respondents said they had stopped or reduced texting, using a hand-held phone or smartphone while driving in the previous year, and more than half of those said they did so because of state laws banning the use of hand-held phones. Fifty-six percent of respondents in states that have full texting bans reduced or stopped texting, compared with 34 percent of respondents in states with no cellphone bans.
  • A number of states have passed laws to address the problem of using a cellphone while driving. Twelve states—California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Utah, Washington State—and the District of Columbia have a law banning the use of hand-held cellphones behind the wheel for all drivers. The use of all cellphones by novice drivers is restricted in 37 states and the District of Columbia, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (See also Teen Drivers paper.)
  • Washington State was the first state to ban the practice of texting with a cellphone while driving. Text messaging is now banned for all drivers in 41 states. However, a 2010 study by the Highway Loss Data Institute found that texting bans may not reduce crash rates. The study looked at collision claims patterns in four states—California, Louisiana, Minnesota and Washington—before and after texting bans went into effect. Collisions went up slightly in all the states, except Washington, where the change was statistically insignificant.
  • Aggressive Driving: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) defines aggressive driving as occurring when “an individual commits a combination of moving traffic offenses so as to endanger other persons or property.” A 2009 study by the American Automobile Association attempted to identify behaviors associated with aggressive driving, based on data tracked by the NHTSA’s Fatal Accident Report System (FARS). It found that aggressive driving played a role in 56 percent of fatal crashes from 2003 through 2007, with excessive speed being the number one factor. The following driver-related contributing factors in FARS were taken as indications that crashes may have involved aggressive driving:
    • Following improperly
    • Improper or erratic lane changing
    • Illegal driving on road shoulder, in ditch, or on sidewalk or median
    • Passing where prohibited
    • Operating the vehicle in an erratic, reckless, careless, or negligent manner or suddenly changing speeds
    • Failure to yield right of way
    • Failure to obey traffic signs, traffic control devices, or traffic officers, failure to observe safety zone traffic laws
    • Failure to observe warnings or instructions on vehicle displaying them
    • Failure to signal
    • Driving too fast for conditions or in excess of posted speed limit
    • Racing
    • Making an improper turn
  • Speeding continues to be the leading aggressive driving behavior. In 2011 driving too fast played a role in 21 percent of fatal crashes, making it the most prevalent factor in fatal crashes, see Chart: DRIVING BEHAVIORS REPORTED FOR DRIVERS AND MOTORCYCLE OPERATORS INVOLVED IN FATAL CRASHES, 2011, below.
  • Pedestrians: A survey released in June 2013, sponsored by Liberty Mutual Insurance, found that about half of respondents considered texting or emailing while crossing a street to be the most dangerous activity, but a quarter of them admitted to doing it. About a quarter thought talking on the phone while crossing the street was dangerous, but half of them said they did it. The number of pedestrians killed in motor vehicle crashes rose by 3 percent in 2011 from 2010 to 4,432, and 69,000 pedestrians were injured.
  • Deer Collisions: State Farm estimates that there were 1.22 million collisions between deer and vehicles in the United States between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013, down 3.5 percent from a year ago. More than 5,000 vehicles were declared a total loss in 2012 due to collisions with animals—mostly deer—up 2 percent from 2011 and 14 percent from 2010.
  • The average property damage cost of deer collisions between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013 was $3,414, up 3.3 percent from the year before.
  • Deer collisions are much more likely to occur during the last three months of the year and in the early evening. More crashes occur in November, the height of the mating and migration season, than any other month. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety estimates that deer collisions cause about 200 fatalities a year.

By Vehicle

  • SUVs and Rollovers: According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the rollover crash is one of the most deadly forms of crashes among passenger vehicle, accounting for more than one-third (35 percent) of all occupant fatalities in 2010. Among fatally injured passenger vehicle occupants in 2010, the proportion of fatalities in rollover crashes was highest for SUVs at 57 percent, followed by pickup trucks (47 percent), vans (30 percent) and passenger cars (23 percent). The number of people killed in SUV rollover crashes fell 2.3 percent from 2,303 in 2009 to 2,251 in 2010. In 2010 SUVs had the highest passenger vehicle occupant fatality rate in rollovers of any vehicle type—5.31 per 100,000 registered vehicles, contrasted with 5.02 percent for pickups, 2.30 percent for vans and 2.15 percent for passenger cars.
  • The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) issued a report in March 2008 that indicates that roof strength in SUVs significantly influences injury risk. The IIHS came to this conclusion by testing the roof strength of SUVs in much the same way that the government requires of automakers and then relating the findings to the real-world death and injury experience of the same vehicles in single-vehicle rollover crashes. The IIHS tested 11 mid-size SUVs that did not have electronic stability control or side curtain airbags, features that might affect injury rates in rollovers. Researchers concluded that if the roofs of all of the SUVs tested had the same strength as the strongest roof in the test, about 212, or almost one-third of the 668 deaths that occurred in these SUVs in 2006, would have been prevented.
  • Motorcycles: NHTSA reports that 4,612 motorcyclists died in crashes in 2011, up 2.1 percent from 4,518 fatalities in 2010. In addition, motorcycle rider fatalities rose to 14.2 percent of all motor vehicle crash fatalities, compared with 13.7 percent in 2010. (See Motorcycle Crashes paper.) In 2011 motorcycles accounted for 3 percent of all registered motor vehicles and 0.6 percent of vehicle miles traveled. However, per vehicle mile traveled, motorcyclists were about 30 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a crash and five times more likely to be injured.
  • Large Trucks: According to NHTSA, 3,757 people died in crashes involving large trucks in 2011, up 1.9 percent from 3,686 in 2010. Although large trucks accounted for 4 percent of all registered vehicles in 2010, they accounted for 8 percent of all vehicles involved in fatal crashes and three percent of all vehicles involved in injury and property damage-only crashes.


  • Crashworthiness: Crashworthiness, a term which refers to how well vehicles withstand different types of crashes, varies by category of vehicle as well as by make, model and year. Two groups conduct tests to determine crashworthiness—the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), which is an insurance-funded organization, and the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The IIHS conducts four types of tests on a large variety of vehicles: Low speed crash tests, rear crash protection tests, side impact crash tests and 40-mph frontal crash offset tests. NHTSA conducts two tests that are similar to the IIHS’s frontal crash and side crash tests. NHTSA also publishes rollover safety ratings by make and model year, and tire ratings by brand. The IIHS vehicle ratings can be found on the Internet at; NHTSA test results can be found at
  • A report released in August 2013 by Allstate ranking cities in terms of car collisions named Fort Collins, Colorado, the safest driving city in America in 2012. According to the report, the average driver in Fort Collins experiences an auto collision every 13.9 years, 28.2 percent better than the national average of 10 years. Washington, DC, drivers were at the bottom of the ranking, with an accident occurring every 4.8 years on average, more than double the national average. A list of the top 10 best and worst cities for car collisions follows:


Best driving cities Worst driving cities
Rank City, State Collision likelihood compared to national average (2) Average years between collisions Rank City, State Collision likelihood compared to national average (2) Average years between collisions
1 Fort Collins, CO 28.2% 13.9 1 Washington, DC 109.3% 4.8
2 Boise, ID 28.0 13.9 2 Baltimore, MD 86.1 5.4
3 Sioux Falls, SD 21.8 12.8 3 Providence, RI 85.5 5.4
4 Brownsville, TX 21.1 12.7 4 Hialeah, FL 78.7 5.6
5 Madison, WI 20.3 12.5 5 Glendale, CA 75.6 5.7
6 Reno, NV 20.2 12.5 6 Philadelphia, PA 65.9 6.0
7 Huntsville, AL 20.1 12.5 7 Alexandria, VA 61.9 6.2
8 Visalia, CA 18.5 12.3 8 Miami, FL 59.4 6.3
9 Montgomery, AL 16.3 11.9 9 San Francisco, CA 53.6 6.5
10 Eugene, OR 16.2 11.9 10 Arlington, VA 49.9 6.7

(1) Allstate’s survey of the 200 largest cities in America based on car collision frequency.
(2) For example, drivers in Fort Collins, CO are 28.2 percent less likely to experience a car collision while drivers in Washington, DC are 109.3 percent more likely to experience a car collision.

Source: Allstate.

View Archived Tables
Lives Saved by Safety Devices

  • Airbags: Airbags are designed to inflate in moderate to severe frontal crashes. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) says that frontal airbags saved 2,204 lives in 2011. Airbags, combined with seatbelts, are the most effective safety protection available for passenger vehicles. Seatbelts alone reduce the risk of fatal injury to front-seat passenger car occupants by 45 percent. The fatality-reducing effectiveness for airbags is 14 percent when no seatbelt is used and 11 percent when a seatbelt is used in conjunction with airbags. Side airbags, which protect the head, chest and abdomen, reduce driver deaths by an estimated 37 percent, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).
  • Seatbelts: Among passenger vehicle occupants over the age of four, seatbelts saved an estimated 11,949 lives in 2011 and 292,471 lives from 1975 through 2011. In fatal crashes in 2011, 77 percent of passenger vehicle occupants who were totally ejected from the vehicle were killed.
  • Child Safety Seats: NHTSA says that in 2011 the lives of an estimated 263 children under the age of five were saved by restraints.
  • Motorcycle Helmets: NHTSA estimates that helmets saved the lives of 1,617 motorcyclists in 2011. If all motorcyclists had worn helmets, an additional 703 lives could have been saved.
  • Helmets are estimated to be 37 percent effective in preventing fatal injuries to motorcycle riders and 41 percent for motorcycle passengers. In other words, for every 100 motorcycle riders killed in crashes while not wearing a helmet, 37 of them could have been saved had all 100 worn helmets.
  • Electronic Stability Control: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) requires all vehicles manufactured after model year 2012 to have electronic stability control (ESC). All new passenger cars, light trucks, SUVs and vans must comply with the requirement. ESC was designed to help prevent rollovers and other types of crashes by controlling brakes and engine power. NHTSA says ESC saved an estimated 634 passenger car occupant lives in 2011 and 411 lives among light truck and van occupants for a total of 1,045 lives saved among passenger vehicle occupants. The 2011 total for lives saved was 19.3 percent higher than the 876 lives saved in 2010, and 48.2 percent higher than the 705 lives saved in 2009, as more cars on the road are sold equipped with ESC.
  • In the 2011 model year, 94 percent of light trucks and vans were equipped with ESC and 92 percent of passenger cars had ESC. This compares with 22 percent and 14 percent, respectively, in 2005.
  • In June 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released the findings of a study that found that ESC for passenger vehicles is one of the most effective technologies for the prevention of fatal crashes, especially rollovers. IIHS data show that it lowers the risk of a deadly crash by 33 percent and cuts the risk of a single-vehicle rollover by 73 percent. The IIHS examined 10 years of crash data from NHTSA.


  • Crash Avoidance: Auto makers offer semiautomous technology to help drivers avoid crashes with alerts or automatic braking. In general, the devices monitor data from drivers and the environment around them to alert them to potential collisions. Electronic stability control is one type of crash avoidance system that is now widespread (see Lives Saved by Safety Devices, above.) Other features that are now available on high-end cars and some moderately priced vehicles are forward collision warning systems, which alert the driver when the vehicle is getting too close to one in front of it; automatic braking; lane departure warnings; side view assistance to compensate for blind spots; adaptive headlights; park assist; and backover prevention.
  • The Highway Loss Data Institute at the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) says that fewer property damage liability claims have been filed involving vehicles with a forward collision warning system with autonomous braking and/or adaptive headlights than for the same vehicles not equipped with these features.
  • In September 2013 the IIHS released the findings of a new test program that rates the performance of front crash prevention systems. This technology alone can add a thousand dollars or more to the cost of a new car.
  • Vehicle-to-vehicle systems, also known as V2V, are being developed to allow cars in the same area to instantly communicate with each other over a wireless network to exchange data on speed, location and direction. This capacity can prevent being hit by a vehicle in an intersection by warning the driver, and in more advanced systems, by braking the car. A similar system, V2I, would allow vehicles to communicate with roadside infrastructure such as traffic lights or work and school zones. According to Consumer Reports, V2I technology began in 1999, and NHTSA began studying cars connected to the technology in 2002. In 2011 the agency joined with eight automakers to develop a standard system to allow all cars to communicate with each other.
  • A federally funded V2V program concluded in August 2013. NHTSA will decide by the end of the year whether to require automakers to include the technology. Final rules could take up to two years and phasing in the technology could take several more years, according to the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers.
  • In mid-2012, the Transportation Department Secretary announced a one-year project that will equip 3,000 buses and trucks in Ann Arbor, Michigan, with data recorders and a Wi-Fi-like system that will transmit information about accidents and hazardous traffic conditions. The agency says that vehicle-to-vehicle communication could help avoid or reduce the severity in an estimated 80 percent of vehicle crashes involving unimpaired drivers. Eight automakers will participate in the study.
  • The IIHS says that it typically takes about three decades for a promising safety feature to be developed, introduced on a few luxury cars and spread throughout the entire fleet of vehicles. It will take at least that long before 95 percent of vehicles on the road are equipped with a specific feature. For instance, it is estimated that electronic stability control will take 34 years to be present in 95 percent of vehicles on the road. Side airbags and antilock brakes are projected to take 31 years to be 95 percent available.
  • Driverless Cars: In May 2012 Nevada became the first state to approve a license to test self-driving cars on public roads; California, Florida and the District of Columbia have passed similar laws. The cars, produced by several carmakers and Google, the technology firm, are completely autonomous and operate using computers, sensors and cameras. Google’s autonomous vehicle research program reported that the trials concluded about 300,000 miles of driving without a crash. However, industry experts cite cost, legal liability, privacy, data ownership and insurance regulations as additional challenges that must be addressed.
  • In May 2013 the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released a policy statement concerning vehicle automation that explains and identifies the technology that offers significant potential for large reductions in crashes and deaths and that sets four levels of automation, ranging from none to total automation. Low-level automation would include electronic vehicle stability control (see Lives Saved by Safety Devices, above) and forward collision warning (see Crash Avoidance, above). In addition, NHTSA outlined research it has begun to explore concerning safety issues and includes recommendations on testing for the states that have authorized self-driving vehicles.
  • Auto Insurance Discounts: According to the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, as of February 2013, 34 states and the District of Columbia mandate discounts for older motorists, usually over the age of 55, and usually after completion of an approved accident prevention course. An additional eight states mandate discounts for drivers other than older drivers who complete approved courses. Six states require insurers to provide discounts to “good” drivers—for instance, those who have no violations points, haven’t had accidents involving bodily injury or driving while intoxicated incidents.
  • Thirteen states mandate discounts for vehicles equipped with antitheft devices or VIN window etching, and nine require discounts for passive restraints and certain safety devices.
  • Three states mandate discounts for motorcyclists who complete a training course.
  • In general the state mandated discounts apply to the coverages that are most relevant to the discount. For example, older adult discounts would apply to liability coverages and antitheft device discounts would apply to the comprehensive portion of the auto insurance policy. However, the regulations vary by state. For instance in Massachusetts the older adult discount applies to all coverages for drivers over the age of 65.
  • Insurers offer discounts to encourage drivers to focus on safety. Some insurers have nationwide discounts in place. Other companies have programs in selected states.
  • At least two insurers offer insurance discounts to owners of “hybrid” cars, which combine a battery-powered engine with a traditional gas engine. When hybrid cars first came onto the market, insurers viewed hybrid owners as less risky drivers than the average driver, based on demographics, driving records, credit data, marital status and driving patterns. But new information from Mitchell International Inc., which publishes Industry Trend Reports, says that environmentally concerned drivers are not the sole demographic segment driving hybrid cars. Now, rising gas prices are the primary reason people purchase hybrids, and they are being driven more often for long commutes. As a result, Mitchell says, the average claim severity for hybrids is 6.5 percent higher than for gas-powered vehicles and that hybrid repairs use more original manufacturers’ parts than generic crash parts (See paper, Generic Auto Crash Parts.). The Highway Loss Data Institute also says that hybrids have higher collision claim frequencies than other vehicles.
  • Usage Based Insurance (UBI): Insurers are increasingly using “telematics” to monitor driving behavior. This technology relies on an electronic device installed in a car to collect data about a person’s driving habits as the car is being driven. The data is used to determine how safely the car is being driven. Safe drivers generally receive a discount on their insurance coverage. A TowersWatson report found that nearly two-thirds of American drivers would be willing to alter their driving behavior in return for a 10 percent insurance discount. Seventy-six percent of those drivers would be willing to use a device to monitor their driving. A Celent report says that using a device can directly influence policyholder behavior because knowing that a device has been installed prompts some drivers to slow down and brake more safely. In general, those who would benefit most from the programs are low-mileage, defensive drivers who do most of their driving in daytime hours. TowersWatson says by the end of 2011, every state had at least one insurer with a telematics program; 18 states had at least four insurers that had programs.
  • Allstate, which offers UBI programs in 16 states and gives drivers a 10 percent discount for signing up, introduced an app for smartphone drivers in 2013 who use its UBI device. State Farm, the largest auto insurer in the country, has four UBI programs. Three focus solely on miles driven and one tracks driving behavior as well as miles driven. ISO, a Verisk analytics company, a national statistical, actuarial, underwriting and claims information company, has launched the first telematics-based rating system. The system collects data and assigns discounts to vehicles operating in areas safer than where they are garaged. The system was filed in 33 states and approved for use in 19 states, as of April 2013. At that time no insurers had filed to use the system. (See Pay-As-You-Drive, Insurance Issues Updates.)
  • Seatbelt Use Laws: Seatbelt use laws are on the books in every state except New Hampshire. However, only 33 states and the District of Columbia had primary enforcement laws as of August 2013, according to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Primary seatbelt laws allow law enforcement officers to stop a car for noncompliance with seatbelt laws (See chart in following section). In the other states, which have secondary enforcement laws, drivers may only be stopped and they and their passengers ticketed, if they have violated other traffic safety laws. In New Hampshire, legislation requiring seatbelt use was rejected by the Senate in May 2007, leaving it the only state in the nation that does not have a law requiring adults to wear seatbelts.
  • The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) says that states with primary enforcement laws have lower fatality rates. The agency compared the percentage of unrestrained passenger vehicle occupant fatalities and fatality rates between states that have primary seatbelt use laws and states that did not have them for 2005 and 2006. Besides having a smaller percentage of passenger vehicle occupant fatalities that were unrestrained, the fatality rates in primary enforcement states were much lower than for all other states. In primary enforcement states the passenger vehicle occupant fatality rates were 0.97 per 100 million vehicle miles traveled and 10.20 per 100,000 population. This compares to 1.06 and 11.78 (respectively) for all other states.
  • Seatbelt use in the United States reached a record high of 86 percent in 2012, compared with 84 percent in 2011, according to NHTSA. States with primary seatbelt laws had an average 90 percent usage rate, 12 points higher than the 78 percent in states with secondary laws. Seatbelt use was highest in the West, at 94 percent, and lowest in the Northeast, at 80 percent. Seatbelt use was 85 percent in the Midwest and the South. Seatbelt use was highest for occupants of vans and SUVs, at 89 percent, and was at 87 percent for occupants of passenger cars. Seatbelt use for occupants of pickup trucks was 77 percent. The following chart shows seatbelt usage rates by state for 2011.


(As of October 2013)

State 2011 usage rate (1) Primary/secondary enforcement (2) Age requirements Maximum fine, first offense Damages reduced (3)
Alabama 88.0% P 15+ yrs. in front seat $25
Alaska 89.3 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 15 X
Arizona 82.9 S 8+ yrs. in front seat; 8-15 in all seats 10 X
Arkansas 78.4 P 15+ yrs. in front seat 25
California 96.6 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 20 X
Colorado 82.1 S 16+ yrs. in front seat 71 X
Connecticut 88.4 P 7+ yrs. in front seat 15
Delaware 90.3 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 25
D.C. 95.2 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 50
Florida 88.1 P 6+ yrs. in front seat; 6-17 yrs. in all seats 30 X
Georgia 93.0 P 8-17 yrs. in all seats; 18+ yrs. in front seat 15
Hawaii 96.0 P 8+ yrs. in all seats 45
Idaho 79.1 S 7+ yrs. in all seats 10
Illinois 92.9 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 25
Indiana 93.2 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 25
Iowa 93.5 P 18+ yrs. in front seat 25 X
Kansas 82.9 P 14+ yrs. in all seats 10-60
Kentucky 82.2 P 6 and younger and more than 50 in. tall in all seats; 7+ yrs. in all seats 25
Louisiana 77.7 P 13+ yrs. in all seats 25-45
Maine 81.6 P 18+ yrs. in all seats 50
Maryland 94.2 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 50
Massachusetts 73.2 S 13+ yrs. in all seats 25
Michigan 94.5 P 16+ yrs. in front seat 25 X
Minnesota 92.7 P 7 and younger and more than 57 inches tall in all seats; 8+ in all seats 25
Mississippi 81.9 P 7+ yrs. in front seat 25
Missouri 79.0 (4) 16+ yrs. in front seat 10 X
Montana 76.9 S 6+ yrs. in all seats 20
Nebraska 84.2 S 18+ yrs. in front seat 25 X
Nevada 94.1 S 6+ yrs. in all seats 25
New Hampshire 75.0 no law for adults
New Jersey 94.5 P (5) 7 yrs. and younger and more than 80 lbs.; 8-17 yrs. in all seats; 8+ yrs. in all seats 20 X
New Mexico 90.5 P 18+ yrs. in all seats 25
New York 90.5 P 16+ yrs. in front seat 50 X
North Carolina 89.5 P (5) 16+ yrs. in all seats 25
North Dakota 76.7 S 18+ yrs. in front seat 20 X
Ohio 84.1 S 8-14 yrs. in all seats; 15+ yrs. in front seat 30 driver/20 passenger X
Oklahoma 85.9 P 13+ yrs. in front seat 20
Oregon 96.6 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 110 X
Pennsylvania 83.8 (4) 8-17 yrs. in all seats; 18+ yrs. in front seat 10
Rhode Island 80.4 P 18+ yrs. in all seats 40
South Carolina 86.0 P 6+ yrs. all seats 25
South Dakota 73.4 S 18+ yrs. in front seat 20
Tennessee 87.4 P 16+ yrs. in front seat 50
Texas 93.7 P 7 yrs. and younger who are 57 inches or taller; 8+ yrs. in all seats 200
Utah 89.2 (4) 16+ yrs. in all seats 45
Vermont 84.7 S 18+ yrs. in all seats 25
Virginia 81.8 S 18+ yrs. in front seat 25
Washington 97.5 P 16+ yrs. in all seats 124
West Virginia 84.9 P 8+ yrs. in front seat; 8-17 yrs. in all seats 25 X
Wisconsin 79.0 P 8+ yrs. in all seats 10 X
Wyoming 82.6 S 9+ yrs. in all seats 25 driver/10 passenger
United States 84.0%

(1) Surveys used by states must be actual observation of shoulder-belt use by drivers and front seat passengers.
(2) Primary enforcement means police may stop a vehicle and issue a fine for noncompliance with seatbelt laws. Secondary enforcement means that police may issue a fine for not wearing a seatbelt only if the vehicle has been stopped for other traffic violations.
(3) Court awards for compensation for injury may be reduced if seatbelt laws were violated.
(4) Primary enforcement for children; ages vary.
(5) Secondary for rear seat occupants.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Property Casualty Insurers Association of America.


Year Fatalities Annual percent change Fatality rate per
100 million vehicle miles traveled
Fatality rate per
100,000 registered vehicles
2003 42,884 -0.3% 1.48 18.59
2004 42,836 -0.1 1.44 18.00
2005 43,510 1.6 1.46 17.71
2006 42,708 -1.8 1.42 16.99
2007 41,259 -3.4 1.36 16.02
2008 37,423 -9.3 1.26 14.43
2009 33,883 -9.5 1.15 13.08
2010 32,999 -2.6 1.11 12.82
2011 32,367 -1.9 1.10 12.57
2012 (1) 34,080 5.3 1.16 NA

(1) Preliminary.

NA=Data not available.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

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Fatal crashes Drivers in fatal crashes Fatalities
Total fatal crashes 29,757 43,668 32,367
Distraction-affected (D-A)
fatal crashes
3,020 3,085 3,331
10% of total crashes 7% of total
10% of total
Cellphone in use in
D-A fatal crashes
350 368 385
12% of D-A crashes 12% of distracted drivers 12% of fatalities in D-A crashes

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

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Number of deaths
State 2010 2011 Percent change
Alabama 862 894 3.7%
Alaska 56 72 29.0
Arizona 759 825 8.7
Arkansas 571 549 -3.9
California 2,720 2,791 2.6
Colorado 450 447 -0.7
Connecticut 320 220 -31.0
Delaware 101 99 -2.0
D.C. 24 27 13.0
Florida 2,444 2,398 -1.9
Georgia 1,247 1,223 -1.9
Hawaii 113 100 -12.0
Idaho 209 167 -20.0
Illinois 927 918 -1.0
Indiana 754 750 -0.5
Iowa 390 360 -7.7
Kansas 431 386 -10.0
Kentucky 760 721 -5.1
Louisiana 721 675 -6.4
Maine 161 136 -16.0
Maryland 496 485 -2.2
Massachusetts 347 337 -2.9
Michigan 942 889 -5.6
Minnesota 411 368 -10.0
Mississippi 641 630 -1.7
Missouri 821 784 -4.5
Montana 189 209 11.0
Nebraska 190 181 -4.7
Nevada 257 246 -4.3
New Hampshire 128 90 -30.0
New Jersey 556 627 13.0
New Mexico 349 353 1.1
New York 1,201 1,169 -2.7
North Carolina 1,320 1,227 -7.0
North Dakota 105 148 41.0
Ohio 1,080 1,016 -5.9
Oklahoma 668 696 4.2
Oregon 317 331 4.4
Pennsylvania 1,324 1,286 -2.9
Rhode Island 67 66 -1.5
South Carolina 809 828 2.3
South Dakota 140 111 -21.0
Tennessee 1,032 946 -8.3
Texas 3,023 3,016 -0.2
Utah 253 240 -5.1
Vermont 71 55 -23.0
Virginia 740 764 3.2
Washington 460 457 -0.7
West Virginia 315 337 7.0
Wisconsin 572 582 1.7
Wyoming 155 135 -13.0
United States 32,999 32,367 -1.9%

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

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Age group Number of licensed drivers Percent of total Drivers in fatal crashes Involvement rate (1) Drivers in all crashes Involvement rate (1)
Under 16 361,046 0.2% 115 NA 16,000 NA
16 to 20 12,280,859 5.8 4,292 34.95 1,219,000 9,923
21 to 24 14,265,636 6.7 4,465 31.30 1,050,000 7,361
25 to 34 36,892,373 17.4 8,517 23.09 1,944,000 5,269
35 to 44 36,938,903 17.4 7,058 19.11 1,734,000 4,695
45 to 54 41,172,350 19.4 7,493 18.20 1,501,000 3,645
55 to 64 35,397,534 16.7 5,542 15.66 1,106,000 3,123
65 to 74 20,511,896 9.7 2,947 14.37 506,000 2,465
Over 74 14,054,051 6.6 2,522 17.95 314,000 2,234
Total 211,874,649 100.0% 43,668 (2) 20.61 9,390,000 (2) 4,432

(1) Per 100,000 licensed drivers.
(2) Includes drivers of unknown age.

NA=Not applicable.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Federal Highway Administration.

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Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

View Archived Graphs


(1) Includes other non-occupants.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

View Archived Graphs


Behavior Number Percent
Driving too fast for conditions or in excess of posted speed limit 9,080 20.8%
Under the influence of alcohol, drugs or medication 6,042 13.8
Failure to keep in proper lane 4,039 9.2
Failure to yield right of way 3,148 7.2
Distracted (phone, talking, eating, etc.) 3,085 7.1
Operating vehicle in erratic, reckless, careless or negligent manner 2,604 6.0
Overcorrecting/oversteering 2,080 4.8
Failure to obey traffic signs, signals or officer 1,826 4.2
Swerving or avoiding due to wind, slippery surface, other
vehicle, object, nonmotorist in roadway, etc.
1,741 4.0
Vision obscured (rain, snow, glare, lights, buildings, trees, etc.) 1,301 3.0
Drowsy, asleep, fatigued, ill, or blacked out 1,152 2.6
Driving wrong way in one-way traffic or on wrong side of road 1,082 2.5
Making improper turn 1,015 2.3
Other factors 6,562 15.0
Unknown 4,569 10.5
None reported 13,012 29.8
Total drivers (1) 43,668 100.0%

(1) The sum of percentages is greater than total drivers as more than one factor may be present for the same driver.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

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Crash severity
Fatal Injury Property damage only Total crashes
Type of collision Number Percent of total fatal crashes Number Percent of total injury crashes Number Percent of total property damage only crashes Number Percent of total crashes
Collision with moving motor vehicle
Angle 5,281 17.7% 413,000 27.0% 793,000 21.0% 1,212,000 22.7%
Rear end 1,806 6.1 475,000 31.0 1,245,000 32.9 1,721,000 32.2
Sideswipe 768 2.6 71,000 4.7 450,000 11.9 522,000 9.8
Head on 2,731 9.2 57,000 3.7 53,000 1.4 112,000 2.1
Other/Unknown 110 0.4 6,000 0.4 60,000 1.6 66,000 1.2
Total 10,696 35.9% 1,022,000 66.8% 2,601,000 68.8% 3,634,000 68.1%
Collision with fixed object
Pole/post 1,354 4.6 49,000 3.2 113,000 3.0 164,000 3.1
Culvert/curb/ditch 2,406 8.1 52,000 3.4 100,000 2.6 154,000 2.9
Shrubbery/tree 2,385 8.0 41,000 2.7 59,000 1.6 102,000 1.9
Guard rail 893 3.0 28,000 1.8 68,000 1.8 96,000 1.8
Embankment 1,049 3.5 20,000 1.3 26,000 0.7 48,000 0.9
Bridge 219 0.7 5,000 0.3 11,000 0.3 17,000 0.3
Other/unknown 1,656 5.6 70,000 4.6 167,000 4.4 239,000 4.5
Total 9,962 33.5% 265,000 17.3% 545,000 14.4% 820,000 15.4%
Collision with object, not fixed
Parked motor vehicle 304 1.0 36,000 2.3 284,000 7.5 320,000 6.0
Animal 183 0.6 14,000 0.9 242,000 6.4 256,000 4.8
Pedestrian 4,095 13.8 63,000 4.1 2,000 0.1 69,000 1.3
Pedalcyclist 669 2.2 47,000 3.1 3,000 0.1 51,000 1.0
Train 116 0.4 (1) (2) 1,000 (2) 1,000 0.0
Other/Unknown 354 1.2 11,000 0.7 49,000 1.3 61,000 1.1
Total 5,721 19.2% 171,000 11.2% 582,000 15.4% 759,000 14.2%
Rollover 2,955 9.9 65,000 4.2 35,000 0.9 102,000 1.9
Other/unknown 395 1.3 75,000 0.4 15,000 0.4 22,000 0.4
Total 3,350 11.3% 72,000 4.7% 50,000 1.3% 125,000 2.3%
Total 28,757 (3) 100.0% 1,530,000 100.0% 3,778,000 100.0% 5,338,000 100.0%

(1) Less than 0.05 percent.
(2) Less than 500 crashes.
(3) Includes 36 crashes with unknown first harmful events.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

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Year Number As a percent of
all crash deaths
2002 13,472 31%
2003 13,096 31
2004 13,099 31
2005 13,582 31
2006 13,491 32
2007 13,041 32
2008 11,711 31
2009 10,759 32
2010 10,136 31
2011 9,878 31

(1) Alcohol-impaired driving crashes are crashes that involve at least one driver or a motorcycle operator with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.08 percent or above, the legal definition of drunk driving.

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

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Year Vehicles stolen Percent change
2003 1,261,226 1.2%
2004 1,237,851 -1.9
2005 1,235,859 -0.2
2006 1,198,245 -3.0
2007 1,100,472 -8.2
2008 959,059 -12.9
2009 795,652 -17.0
2010 739,565 -7.0
2011 716,508 -3.1
2012 721,053 0.6

Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports.

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